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Contact details: 

Delia Grace Randolph ( Program Leader (joint) Animal and Human Health. International Livestock Research Institute.


Report Overview

     The use of antimicrobials in animals, especially in livestock production and aquaculture as a key driver of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has gained attention in recent years. While in many high-income countries (HICs) there is available information about how and how much antimicrobials are used in animal production, in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) this information is inexistent or insufficient. Lack of surveillance programs in these countries means that the contribution of the agricultural sector to the AMR problem is often neglected or misestimated. 

    Animal origin resistant bacteria with zoonotic potential can be in animal source food products, posing a risk to human health. Moreover, the increasing demand of animal products is driving the intensification of livestock and fish production systems, increasing the likelihood of antimicrobial use (AMU), especially in LMICs where fewer restrictions have been imposed on antimicrobial use. 

     To be able to understand the magnitude of the problem in LMICs, information regarding the quantity and quality of antimicrobial use, acceptability and feasibility of regulations to AMU in agriculture, and the cost-benefit of these regulations is critical for proposing evidence-based solutions. 

     In this report, Grace (2015), identified key evidence gaps in our knowledge of livestock- and fisheries-linked antimicrobial resistance in the developing world and documented ongoing or planned research initiatives on this topic by key stakeholders.


Research impact

     By filling in the gaps of current knowledge about how LMICs are using antimicrobials we contribute to improving the understanding and magnitude of the AMR problem, providing a starting point for discussions in what direction and how researchers and policymakers should move the AMR agenda forward in these countries.


Institutions involved

  1. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI).


Research Subject Area(s)

Animal Health, Antimicrobial Use (AMU), Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)



  • UK Department for International Development (DFID)


Find the report here: 

Grace, D. 2015. Review of Evidence on Antimicrobial Resistance and Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries. International Livestock Research Institute. Available at: